Major highlights of National Defense Policy of China
Historic changes have taken place in the relations between contemporary China and the rest of the world. The Chinese economy has become an important part of the world economy.
The country has, undoubtedly, become an important member of the international system, and the future and destiny of China have been increasingly closely connected with the international community. China cannot develop itself by isolating from the rest of the world, nor can the world enjoy prosperity and stability sans China.
China adheres to taking the Scientific Outlook on Development as an important guiding principle for national defense and armed forces building; is actively adapting itself to new trends in world military development, taking it as its fundamental purpose to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development, taking reform and innovation as its fundamental driving force, and advancing the modernization of its national defense and armed forces from a higher starting point.
The Security Situation
With the advent of the new century, the world is undergoing tremendous changes and adjustments. Peace and development remain the principal themes of the times, and the pursuit of peace, development and cooperation has become an irresistible trend of the times. However, global challenges are on the increase, and new security threats keep emerging.
Economic globalization and world multi-polarization are gaining momentum. The rise and decline of international strategic forces is quickening, major powers are stepping up their efforts to cooperate with each other and draw on each other’s strengths. They continue to compete with and hold each other in check, and groups of new emerging developing powers are arising. Therefore, a profound readjustment is brewing in the international system.
World peace and development are faced with multiple difficulties and challenges. Struggles for strategic resources, strategic locations and strategic dominance have intensified. Meanwhile, hegomonism and power politics still exist, regional turmoil keeps spilling over, hot-spot issues are increasing, and local conflicts and wars keep emerging.
Issues such as terrorism, environmental disasters, climate change, serious epidemics, transnational crime and pirates are becoming increasingly prominent.
The influence of military security factors on international relations is mounting. As a result, arms races in some regions are heating up, posing grave challenges to the international arms control and nonproliferation regime.
China is faced with the superiority of the developed countries in economy, science and technology, as well as military affairs. It also faces strategic maneuvers and containment from the outside while having to face disruption and sabotage by separatist and hostile forces from the inside.
Separatist forces working for “Taiwan independence,” “East Turkistan independence” and “Tibet independence” pose threats to China’s unity and security.
In the face of unprecedented opportunities and challenges, China will hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, persist in taking the road of peaceful development, pursue the opening-up strategy of mutual benefit, and promote the building of a harmonious world with enduring peace and common prosperity; and it will persist in implementing the Scientific Outlook on Development in a bid to achieve integration of development with security.
It will encourage the advancement of security dialogues and cooperation with other countries, oppose the enlargement of military alliances, and acts of aggression and expansion. China will never seek hegemony or engage in military expansion now or in the future, no matter how developed it becomes.
National Defense Policy
China pursues a national defense policy which is purely defensive in nature.China’s national defense policy for the new stage in the new century basically includes: upholding national security and unity, and ensuring the interests of national development; achieving the all-round, coordinated and sustainable development of China’s national defense and armed forces; enhancing the performance of the armed forces with informationization as the major measuring criterion; implementing the military strategy of active defense; pursuing a self-defensive nuclear strategy; and fostering a security environment conducive to China’s peaceful development.
China pursues a three-step development strategy to modernize its national defense and armed forces step by step in a well-planned way. This strategic framework is defined as follows:
- Promoting the informationization of China’s national defense and armed forces. It has formulated in a scientific way strategic plans for national defense and armed forces building and strategies for the development of the services and arms, according to which it will lay a solid foundation by 2010, basically accomplish mechanization and make major progress in informationization by 2020, and by and large reach the goal of modernization of national defense and armed forces by the mid-21st century.
- Overall planning of economic development and national defense building. It makes national defense building an organic part of its social and economic development.
- Deepening the reform of national defense and armed forces.
China strives to adjust and reform the systems of defense-related industry of science and technology and the procurement of weapons and equipment, and enhance its capacity for independent innovation in R&D of weapons and equipment with better quality and cost-effectiveness.
- Taking the road of leapfrog development.
Persisting in strengthening the military by means of science and technology, China is working to develop new and high-tech weaponry and equipment, carry out the strategic project of training talented people, conduct military training, and build a modern logistics system in an all-round way, so as to change the mode of formation of war-fighting capabilities.
- China implements a military strategy of active defense.
In response to the new trends in world military developments and the requirements of the national security and development strategy, China has formulated a military strategic guideline of active defense for the new period.
This guideline lays stress on deterring crises and wars. It strictly adheres to a position of self-defense, exercises prudence in the use of force, seeks to effectively control war situations, and strives to reduce the risks and costs of war. China remains committed to the policy of no first use of nuclear weapons, pursues a self-defensive nuclear strategy, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any other country.
This guideline adheres to and carries forward the strategic concept of people’s war. In accordance with this guideline, China always relies on the people to build national defense and the armed forces, combines a lean standing force with a powerful reserve force, and endeavors to reinforce its national war potential and defense strength.